Connectors: essential


Despite the rain, he went for a walk - Apesar da chuva, ele foi dar uma caminhada

A connector is a word that links two similar items (words, phrases, clauses). We usually use them to make sentences more fluid and express more sophisticated ideas:

  • He studied Economics. His sister studied Psychology.
  • He studied Economics, whereas his sister studied Psychology.


Some connectors express the same idea, but change in terms of formality. We can use them depending on the context to sound more formal or more informal:

  • I don't want to go. I am also going to be busy. (informal)
  • That product is expensive. In addition, We have no need for it. (formal)


Connectors can appear at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of sentences. Some of them are more flexible and can appear in different places:

  • While some people prefer eating out, I love cooking at home.
  • Adam is poor. Nathan, however, is quite rich.
  • The park was crowded. We wanted to go, though.


Some linking words are followed by a clause (subject + verb + object):

  • I am tired because I played tennis this morning.

Some linking words are followed by just an object:

  • I am tired because of tennis this morning.


There are many different kinds of connectors (addition, contrast, conclusion, etc):

Meaning Connector
Contrast however, nonetheless, nevertheless, etc.
Addition in addition, moreover, furthermore, etc.
Example for example, for instance, to illustrate, etc.
Conclusion therefore, thus, as a result, etc.
Similarity in the same way, similarly, likewise, etc


  • As long as my train arrives on time, I'll be there to help you.
  • Although I love him, I wouldn't want to marry him.
  • Either it's right, or it's wrong.
Further learning
Description Author Language
How to use 'in spite of' and 'despite'. Anglo-Link
When to use 'even though' and 'even if'. BBC Learning


This grammar section includes materials sourced from the following: Linguapress,